The kidneys excrete urine by extracting fluid and waste from the blood flowing through them. An analysis of the urine may indicate abnormalities in the blood, kidneys and urinary tract.

Indicates physical characteristics such as impurities, blood, infection, concentration, etc.

Urine may be clear or cloudy. Cloudy urine could indicate the presence of impurities or an infection.

The pH indicates if the urine is alkaline or acidic. The pH is dependent upon the type of food eaten and the time of day the urine sample was collected.

Specific Gravity
The specific gravity is an indication of the density or concentration of the urine compared to water.

Glucose is not normally detected in the urine of normal healthy individuals. Glucose is usually seen in the urine of patients with diabetes mellitus.

Protein is not normally detected in the urine of normal healthy individuals and its presence usually suggests a kidney disorder. Small amounts of protein may be present in normal individuals, in concentrated specimens or after a strenuous exercise.

Ketones are not normally detected in the urine of normal healthy individuals. The presence of ketones in the urine is indicative of diabetes mellitus or acute starvation.

Urine is normally sterile. The presence of bacteria and/or nitrite in a fresh urine sample indicates a urinary tract or bladder infection.

Bilirubin is not normally present in urine. The presence of bilirubin in the urine may indicate a liver disorder such as hepatitis.

Increased levels of urobilinogen can be seen in normal individuals; however, in some cases, it may indicate liver disorders or other conditions that break down red blood cells, such as Thalassemia.

White Blood Cells, Epithelial Cells, Red Blood Cells, Casts, Crystals
The function of the urinary system is to eliminate waste from the body. During this elimination process, certain cellular elements may also be passed through the urine. Small amounts of WBC, RBC and Epithelial Cells are normal. Casts and crystals in the urine should be considered abnormal.